WAEC Biology Question and Solution 4

waec question and solution

WAEC Biology Question and Solution 4

(a) What is conservation of natural resources?

(b) List various natural resources that need to be conserved. State briefly the benefits of conservation in each case.

(c) List the problems often encountered in ensuring conservation of natural resources.

(d) What are the efforts being employed in your-country to ensure conservation of resources?


Question extracted from June 1988 SSCE Biology 2 Section B Essay Question number 4



(a) Conservation of natural resources is defined as  the sustainable utilization of natural resources, like soils, water, plants, animals, and minerals, timber, fish, game, topsoil, pastureland, and minerals, and also to the preservation of forests-forestry, wildlife-wildlife refuge, parkland, wilderness, and watershed areas. It is the skill of planning and managing natural resources to make sure that they are wisely utilized.  This is as well to insure that the sustainability and continuity of such natural resources over time while maintaining and improving their quality, diversity and values.


(b)(i) There are a lot of natural resources that need to be conserved. Examples are: — Water, soil, Wild life and Solid Minerals.

(ii) The benefits of conserving each of the natural resources are:

(1) Water – There is absolutely a great necessity to conserve water in order to make it available for domestic and commercial use, both presently and in future. It is also necessary to conserve water to ensure that an aquatic organism whose life depends on it is sustained.

(2) Soil – Soil as a natural resource needs to be conserved in order to boost its fertility as well as ensure that the soil is not eroded a process known as erosion.

(3) Wildlife – It is as well essential to conserve wild life to prevent extinction of particular plants and animal species, e.g. elephants. There are laws and regulation guiding utilization of wild life like cutting of timbers and hunting of animals or fishing to avoid extinction. Offenders are appropriately punished.

(4) Minerals resources  – There is a great need to conserve minerals in order to avoid unobstructed misuse and complete use up of minerals like petroleum, gold, tin of ore, iron ore, platinum, nickel and so on.

 (5) Forest – There is also the need to conserve forest in order to ensure incessant or regular supply of forest products, like timber, fruits, ropes and to avoid desertification, and so on. Forests make available a lot of social, economic, and environmental benefits. Additionally to timber and paper products, forests make available wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities, avert soil erosion and flooding, aid in the provision of clean air and water, and possess fantastic biodiversity. Forests are as well a crucial defense against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests create life-giving oxygen and make use of enormous amounts of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric chemical majorly responsible for global warming. By the reduction of circulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forests may lessen the effects of global warming.


(c) Problems that are often encountered in the conservation of natural resources are: cropping and agriculture, soil erosion, hunting, lumbering, fishing, mining, construction, industrialization, bush burning, over cropping, and so on.


(d) Efforts that are being employed in Nigeria for ensuring conservation are:

(1) Establishment of zoological and botanical gardens in different parts of the country.

(2) Enactment of law prohibiting lumbering and indiscriminate hunting in the country’s national forest reserve.

(3) There are laws prohibiting the use of chemicals to kill and catch fish.

(4) Reforestation programme set up by the Government to encourage massive tree planting campaign.

(5) Institution of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) to monitor how the natural resources are being utilized.

(6) There are establishment of Forest or game reserves like the Yankari Game reserve in Bauchi State.